gupNrhjidf;fhd jahHgLj;jy;

mwpFwp

,e;jg; gupNrhjidahdJ jpR kzpf;foiyepiy kw;Wk; nfsr;rH Neha; (nfhOg;G tsHrpij khw;wf; FiwghL) kw;Wk; F\;lNuhfk; Mfpa Neha;fisf; nfhz;bUg;gjhfr; re;Njrpf;fg;gLk; Nehahspfis kjpg;gpLtjw;fhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j” msT vijr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ

  • jpR kzpf;foiyepiy
  • F\;lNuhfk;
  • nfhOg;G tsHrpij khw;wf;FiwghL
  • ePupopT tpopj;jpiu Neha;
  • <uy; Neha;
  • kpif Nflar;Rug;G epiy

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp/%is Ks;se;jz;Lg; ghak; (CSF). Ntwhf;fg;gl;l CdPupid cldbahf ciwaitf;fTk;

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

KO ,uTk; cz;zhky; ,Ug;gJ tpUk;gj;jf;fJ (11-12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs;). ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

mwpFwp

,J Fly; Gw;WNeha; rhHe;j FiwghLfisf; fz;lwpe;J fz;fhzpg;gjw;fhd capupay;; ,urhad Neha; mwpjYf;Fg; gad;kpf;fjhFk;. ,J nrunlhdpid cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; fl;bf;fhd mwpFwpahFk;

khjpup

24 kzpj;jpahy rpWePH

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

Nehahsp gpd;tUk; czTfisAk; fLikahd clw;gapw;rpapidAk; khjpupr; Nrfupg;gpw;F 72 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F Kd;dUk; khjpupr; Nrfupg;gpd; gpd;dUk; jtpHf;f Ntz;Lk;. thiog;gok;> fptp> Nthy;el;> Midf;nfha;ah> fj;jupf;fha;> md;dhrp> gpsk;> jf;fhsp kw;Wk; gpukjpird;> my;fN`hy; ghdq;fs;> NjePH> Nfhg;gp> Gifapiy. jtpHf;f Ntz;ba kUe;Jfspy; cs;slq;Fgit>

  • GNshurpy; - Fluorouracil
  • nky;gyd; - Melphalan
  • ngNdhjaird;]; - Phenothiazines
  • mrpl;likNdhgd; - Acetaminophen
  • ifgndrpd; - Guaifenesin
  • INrhiidarpl; - Isoniazid
  • MAO ,d;`pgplH]; - MAO inhibitors
  • nkgndrpd; - Mephenesin
  • nkjdikd; fk;gTd;l];; - Methenamine compounds
  • nknjhfhHgnkhy; - Methocarbamol
  • nkjpy;nlhgh - Methyldopa
  • ngNdhijarpd; - Phenothiazine
  • nurgpd; rypirNyl;]; - Reserpine salicylates
  • l;iuirfpspf; md;b bg;urd;l; - Tricyclic antidepressants

mwpFwp

Kjy;epiy mz;zPuff; Fiwghl;Lf;Fk; ,uz;lhk; epiy mz;zPuff; Fiwghl;bw;Fk; ,ilapyhd tpj;jpahrj;jpidf; fz;lwptjw;Fk; frpd;q;;; Nehapid fz;lwptjw;Fk; cjTfpd;wJ.

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j” msT vijr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ

  • mbrd; Neha; - Addison' s disease
  • frpd;q; Neha; (fgr;Rug;gpapy; fl;b my;yJ fgr; Rug;gpapd; Nkyjpf tsu;r;rp) - Cushing' s disease

“jho;thdJ” my;yJ “FiwthdJ” vd;gJ gpd;tUtdtw;wpid Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;

  • mz;zPufg; Gwdpf;fl;b - Adrenal - cortex tumor

khjpup

EDTA FUjp (FspHtpf;fg;gl;l Foha;) khjpupapidf; fhtpr;nry;tjw;fhf FUjpapidg; ngwKd;dH I]pidg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;sTk;.

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

FUjpapid K.g. 6 Kjy; 10 kzpf;Fs; vLf;f Ntz;Lk;. gupNrhjidf;F 10-12 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F Kd;dH cq;fsJ cly; nraw;ghLfisf; Fiwf;f Ntz;Lk;. gupNrhjidf;F ,uz;L ehl;fSf;F Kd;dH Gujr; nrwpT Fiwe;j cztpid ePq;fs; cz;zNtz;Lk;. my;fN`hy; mUe;JtJ gupNrhjid KbTfspy; ghjpg;Gfis Vw;gLj;jyhk; (vjNdhy;> tp];fp> itd; my;yJ gpaH).

mwpFwp

,e;jg; gupNrhjidahdJ ePupoptpidf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjpy; gad;kpf;fjhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. ,J ,d;Rypd; vjpu;g;G epiyapidf; fz;lwptjw;Fk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,J fidaf; fyq;fspd; mrhjhuz mjpfupg;G> FSf;NfhNfhl;bnfha;l; (glucocorticoid) FiwghL my;yJ ghuJ}ukhd <uy; Neha; Mfpatw;wpdhy; Vw;gLfpd;w FiwrHf;fiuj; jd;ikapid cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; cjTfpd;wJ.

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j msT” vijr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

  • caH ,d;Rypd; kl;lKk; mjw;F gjpyhff; FUjpapy; jho;e;j ru;f;fiu kl;lKk; ,d;RypNdhkhitf; (insulinoma) Fwpf;fpd;wd.
  • ,d;Rypd; vjpu;g;G ePupopT

“jho;thdJ” my;yJ “FiwthdJ” vd;gJ gpd;tUtdtw;wpid Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;

  • ,d;Rypd; vjpu;g;G ePupopT.

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

czT cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy;. FUjpapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F 8-12 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F Kd;du; ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis cz;zhkypUg;gJk; mUe;jhkypUg;gJk; czT cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

mwpFwp

Kjy;epiy kpif mz;zPufr; Rug;gpidg; guprPypj;jy; (mz;zPufr; Rug;gp tbt Gw;Wf;fl;b/Gw;W kw;Wk; mz;zPufg; Gudpf; FiwjpR tsHr;rp) kw;Wk; ,uz;lhk; epiy kpif mz;zPufr; Rug;G (rpWePuff; FUjpehs Neha;> cg;Gf;Fiwtiljy;> nghl;lhrpak; mjpfupj;jy;> ,ja Neha; mj;Jld; tapw;W ePHf;Nfhit kw;Wk; fHg;gk;)

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j msT” vijr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

  • caH FUjp mOj;jk; Kjy; kpif mz;zPufr; Rug;G
  • mz;zPufg; Gudpapy; Gw;W kw;Wk; kpifr; nraw;ghl;L mz;zPufg; Gudp cortex - Cancer of the adrenal cortex Overactive adrenal cortex
  • gpwtp ,Uja NehAk; <uy; NehAk; - Congestive heartfailure Cirrhosis
  • fU Kk;khjk; - Third trimester of pregnancy

“jho;thdJ” my;yJ “FiwthdJ” vd;gJ gpd;tUtdtw;wpidr; Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;.

  • kpif mz;zPufr; Rug;G 2 mbrd; Neha; - Hypo Aldosteronism 2 Addison' s disease
  • NgWfhy rd;dp - Toxemia of pregnancy
  • mjpf cg;G ,og;G - Loss of too much salt

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp (Fsp&l;lg;gl;l Foha;)

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

FUjp Nrfupg;Gf;F Kd;dH 30 epkplk; G+uz Xa;T. gupNrhjidf;F Fiwe;jjJ ,uz;L thuq;fSf;F Kd;dH rhjhuz cg;Gld; (ehnshd;Wf;F 3 fpuhk;) Fiwthd Guj cztpid cl;nfhs;Sjy;. rhj;jpankdpd; ,e;j cztpidg; gupNrhjidf;F 30 ehl;fSf;F Kd;gpUe;Nj cz;zNtz;Lk;. gupNrhjidf;Ff; Fiwe;jJ 2 thuq;fSf;F Kd;dH mjpkJuj;jpid cz;z Ntz;lhk;.

mwpFwp

gupNrhjidahdJ ,jaj;jkdp Neha;fs; (Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) gw;wpa Nkyjpf jfty;fis toq;Ffpd;wJ.

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j” msT vijr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ

  • caH HDL nghJthf MNuhf;fpa epiyapidr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ.
  • caH LDL nghJthf ,jaj;jkdp Nehapid cUthf;Ftjw;fhd ruhrupia tpl mjpfupj;j tha;g;gpidr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

FUjp Nrfupg;Gf;F Kd;dH 10 -12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cz;zhkypUj;jy;. ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. gupNrhjidf;F Kd;dH 2 thuq;fSf;F rhjhuz cztpid cz;zTk;.

mwpFwp

nfhOg;Gf; FiwghLfs;. ,ja Neha;fSf;fhd mghaNeHtpidj; jPHkhdpf;f cjTfpd;wJ> tpNrlkhf ,jaj;jkdp Nehapidf; fz;Lgpbf;f cjTfpd;wJ. nfhOg;G tsHrpij khw;wj;jpid kjpg;gpl;L rpWePufr; rpijT Neha;> fida Neha;> <uy; Neha;> kpifNflar; Rug;G Neha; Mfpatw;wpidf; fz;Lgpbf;f cjTfpd;wJ.)

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j” msT vijr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ

  • gpj;j ehs milg;G - Bile-duct blockage
  • kpif Nflar; Rug;G - Hyperthyroidism
  • Muk;g <uy; mow;rp - Early hepatitis *
  • <uy; Neha; - Liver disease
  • caH nfhOg;G czTfis EfHjy;
  • kpif Nflar; Rug;ghdJ ,jaj;jkdp Neha;f;fhd mghaNeHtpid mjpfupf;fpd;wJ.
  • fida Neha; - Pancreafitis

“jho;thdJ” my;yJ “FiwthdJ” vd;gJ gpd;tUtdtw;wpidr; Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;.

  • <uy; Neha; - Liver disease
  • kpif Nflar; Rug;G - Hypothyroidism
  • Ngh\hf;fpd;ik - Malnutrition

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

,uT KOtJk; cz;zhjpUj;jy;. Mff;Fiwe;jJ 12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; fl;lhakhdjhFk;.

tsHe;NjhH : 12-14 kzpj;jpahyq;fs;

Foe;ijfs; 6 tajpidtpl rpwpatHfs; : ghY}l;Ltjw;F Kd;dH

6 tajpid tplg; ngupatHfs; : czT+l;Ltjw;F Kd;dH

rpwe;j ngWNgw;wpidg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F Nehahsp gupNrhjidf;F Kd;dH 2-3 thuq;fSf;F jplkhd cztpid cz;z Ntz;Lk;. khjpupapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;dH 12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cztUe;jhjpUj;jy;. ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

mwpFwp

,e;jg; gupNrhjidahdJ ,uj;jf; fy;rpakpif gw;wpa ntt;NtW Neha;f;Fwpfis milahsk; fhz cjTfpd;wJ. ,J Kjyhk; epiy> ,uz;lhk; epiy kw;Wk; %d;whk; epiy ,izf;Nflar; Rug;G kpifapidf; fz;Lgpbg;gjw;Fk; ,izj;njhz;il ,af;FePH epiyapidf; fz;Lgpbg;gjw;Fk; cjTfpd;wJ.

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j msT” vijr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

  • ,izf;Nflar; Rug;;G kpif - Hyperparathyroidism

“jho;thdJ” my;yJ “FiwthdJ” vd;gJ gpd;tUtdtw;wpidr; Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;.

  • ,izf;Nflar; Rug;;G kpif - Hypoparathyroidism
  • EiuaPuy; Gw;W - Lung cancer *
  • rpWePuf> fiza my;yJ #yfg; Gw;WNeha; - Kidney , Pancreas or Ovarian cancer

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp (Fsp&l;lg;gl;l Foha;). khjpupapid vLj;Jr; nry;y Kd;dH I]pidg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;sTk;.

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

khjpupapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;dH 12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cztUe;jhjpUj;jy;. ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

mwpFwp

mz;zPufg; Gwzp rhu;e;j nraw;ghlhdJ frpd; Neha; kw;Wk; mbrd; Neha;f;fhd Neha;f;Fwpfis cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F cjTfpd;wJ. ,uz;lhk; epiy mz;zPuff; Fiwghl;bid milahsk; fhz cjTfpd;wJ.

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j” msT vijr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ

  • frpd;q; Neha; - Cushing' s disease

“jho;thdJ” my;yJ “FiwthdJ” vd;gJ gpd;tUtdtw;wpidr; Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;.

  • mbrd; Neha; - Addison' s disease
  • ACTH Rug;G ACTH secretion Hypophysectomy
  • Foe;ijg; Ngw;Wf;Fg; gpd;dH jpR mOfy; - Post - Partum pituitary necrosis
  • %isf; fl;b
  • FNuhNkhNghg; (Chromophobe) Rug;gptbtg; Gw;WNeha;rhuhf; fl;b - Chromophobe adenoma

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

mz;zPufg; Guzpg; gupNrhjidf;fhd FUjpahdJ fhiy 9 kzpf;F my;yJ es;sputpy; my;yJ NtW tpNrl Ntz;LNfhspd; Ngupy; vLf;fg;glyhk;. gupNrhjidf;F Kd;dH 10-12 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F cq;fsJ clw;nraw;ghLfisf; Fiwj;Jf;nfhs;sTk;. gupNrhjidf;F 3 ehl;fSf;F Kd;Ng rhjhuz cg;G cztpid cl;nfhs;sTk; (ehnshd;Wf;F 3 fpuhk;).

mz;zPufg; Guzp> ACTH J mz;zPufg; Guzp SUSPRESSION gupNrhjidapdhy;; J}z;lg;gly;.

mwpFwp

kpifg;gUkd; kw;Wk; kpif <];l;u[d; Nghd;W SHBGy; ,ilA+Wfs; Vw;gLtjhf re;Njfpf;fg;gLifapy; nl];nlh];bNuhd gupNrhjidahdJ gad;kpf;fjhFk;.

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

khjpupapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;dH 12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cztUe;jhjpUj;jy;. ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

mwpFwp

ntspg;gf;fj;jhy; Vw;wg;gLk; ,d;RypdpypUe;J fizaj;jpYs;s fl;bapdhy;; kpifahfr; Ruf;Fk; ,d;Rypidg; gpupj;jwptjpy; ,J gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,jd; nrwpthdJ Kjyhk; tif ePupopT tpahjpapy; Nkhrkhd msT Fiwthff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ my;yJ ,y;yhky; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. fida khw;wpidg; ngw;Wf;nfhz;l Nehahspfs; my;yJ fizaj;jpy; gutpAs;s fyj;njhFjpapidg; (islet) ngw;Wf;nfhz;l Nehahspfspy; fz;fhzpg;gpid Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F ,J gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

khjpupapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;dH 12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cztUe;jhjpUj;jy;. ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

mwpFwp

re;Njfpf;fg;gLk; Fly; Gw;WNeha;> rt;Tf; foiy> ,iug;igf; FUjpg;ngUf;F.

“mrhjhuzk;” vd;gJ vjidr; Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;

  • rhjfkhd gupNrhjid KbT ,iug;igf; FUjpg; ngUf;fpidr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ.
  • jl;lk;ik - Varices
  • Flw;Gz; - Peptic Ulcer
  • Gw;WNeha; - Carcinoma
  • Flw;Gz; mow;rp - Ulcerative Colitis
  • tapw;Wf;fLg;G - Dysentery
  • ,uj;jf;frpT Neha; - Haemorrhagic disease

khjpup

RkhH 5 - 10 fpuhk;

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

khjtplha;f; fhyg;gFjpnadpd; vOkhwhd khjpup> 3 ehl;fSf;F khjpupr; Nrfupg;gpidj; jhkjg;gLj;jTk;. khjpupapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;dUs;s 48 kzpj;jpahyq;fSs; FUjpg;ngUf;fpid Cf;Ftpf;ff;$ba my;fN`hy;> m];gpupd; my;yJ Vida Fly; vuptpid Vw;gLj;jf;$ba kUe;Jfisj; jtpHf;fTk;. kyj;jpidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F 3 ehl;fSf;F Kd;dUk; kyj;jpid Nrfupf;ifapYk; ed;F rkepiyg;gLj;jg;gl;l ehHg;nghUl;fs; cs;slq;fpa mjhtJ jtpl;L czTfs;> goq;fs;> kuf;fwpfs; Mfpa czTfis cl;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. khl;biwr;rp> Ml;biwr;rp kw;Wk; <uy; Nghd;w rptg;G ,iwr;rpfisj; jtpHf;fTk;.

mwpFwp

Nghypf; mkpyg; gw;whf;Fiw kw;Wk; tpl;lkpd; gp12 gw;whf;Fiw Mfpatw;Wf;fpilapy; tpj;jpahrj;jpidf; fz;Lgpbf;f cjTfpd;wJ.

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j msT” vijr;Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ

  • ,uj;jg;Gw;WNeha; - Leukemia
  • <uy; Neha; - Liver disease

“jho;thdJ” my;yJ “FiwthdJ” vd;gJ gpd;tUtdtw;wpidr; Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;

  • ,aw;if %yq;fspy; ,Ue;J fpilf;Fk; Nghypf; mkpyk; Nghjpa mstpy; clypy; cl;Nruhik (kuf;fwp czTfis cl;nfhs;Nthuplk; nghJthff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ)
  • mfj;JwpQ;ry; Fiwghl;L Neha; - Malabsorption syndrome
  • kpiff;Nflar; Rug;G - Hyperthyroidism
  • ,uj;j Nrhif - Pernicious anemia

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

cztUe;jhky; ,Ug;gJ tpUk;gj;jf;fJ. khjpupapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;dH 12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cztUe;jhjpUj;jy;. ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. vt;thwhapDk; ePq;fs; cz;zhkypUf;fhjNghJ FUjpapid vLg;gjw;Fk; Ntz;LNfhs; tpLf;fyhk;. gupNrhjidf;F 24 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F Kd;dH kJghdk; mUe;j Ntz;lhk;.

mwpFwp

Mz; fUts epiyapidj; jPHkhdpg;gjw;F ,e;jg; gupNrhjid cjTfpd;wJ.

,jpNy mrhjhuzkhdJ vd;gJ vijf; Fwpf;fpd;wJ

  • clYwtpd;NghJ rhj;jpakhd vt;tpjkhd tpe;jZf;fisAk; tpe;J ntspNaWk;NghJ ntsptpl Kbahj Mz;fs; kyL MtH.
  • ,ay;epiyf;Ff; fPohd tpe;jZ vz;zpf;if> Fiwtile;j tpe;jZ ,af;fk; kw;Wk; mrhjhuzkhd Gwtbtpay; Mfpait Fiwthd fUtsj;Jld; ,ize;Js;sd.

khjpup

  • njhw;W ePf;fg;gl;l> jpUff;$ba> %baplg;gl;l nfhs;fyd;
  • khjpupahdJ cly; ntg;gepiyapy; Ngzg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
  • khjpupahdJ Nrfupf;fg;gl;l 30 epkplq;fspDs; Ma;T$lj;jpw;F mDg;gpitf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

Nrfupg;Gf;F Kd;dH Nehahsp 2-7 ehl;fs; tiu tpe;jpid ntspNaw;WtjpypUe;Jk; jtpHe;jpUf;fNtz;Lk;. ePq;fs; VjhtJ kUe;Jfisg; ghtpj;jpUe;jhy; itj;jpauplk; mJgw;wpf; fye;JiuahlTk;.

ntspaplq;fspy; ,Ue;J nfhz;Ltug;gLk; khjpupfs; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glj;jf;fitay;y.

mwpFwp

Nghypf; mkpyk; kw;Wk; ,Uk;Gf; FiwghL

khjpup

EDTA FUjp

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

czT cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; tpUk;gj;jf;fJ. khjpupapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;dH 12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cztUe;jhjpUj;jy;. ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. vt;thwhapDk; ePq;fs; cz;zhkypUf;fhjNghJ FUjpapid vLg;gjw;Fk; Ntz;LNfhs; tpLf;fyhk;. gupNrhjidf;F 24 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F Kd;dH kJghdk; mUe;j Ntz;lhk;.

mwpFwp

,e;jg; gupNrhjidahdJ N`hNkh ntdpypf; (Homo vanillic) mkpyj;Jld; NrHj;J n`l;lFNyhikd; Ruf;Fk; fl;bfisr; rpWtHfspy; fz;lwptjw;F cjTfpd;wJ. ,J gpNahFNuhifNlhkh fl;bfisf; fz;lwptjw;Fk; NtW jd;dpaf;f euk;Gj;njhFjpapy; cs;s FiwghLfisf; fz;lwptjw;Fk; gad;gLfpd;wJ. ,J GwzPu; mfzpapd; nraw;ghl;bid kjpg;gpLfpd;wJ.

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j msT” vijr;Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

  • gpNahFNuhifNlhkh Nghd;w fl;lFNshikd; Ruf;Fk; fl;b
  • vd;Nlhf;iud; FiwghLfs;

khjpup

24 kzpj;jpahy rpWePH Nrfupg;G

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

,e;j Nehahspfs; fl;lhak; jpNahigiyd;> nrhf;Nyl;;> ntdpyh> thiog;gok;> kJghdk;> NjePH> Nfhg;gp> Gifapiy kw;Wk; fLikahd clw;gapw;rp Mfpatw;wpid Nrfupg;Gf;F 72 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F Kd;dH jtpHf;f Ntz;Lk;.

gpd;tUk; kUe;Jfs; gupNrhjid Kbtpd;NghJ ghjpg;gpid Vw;gLj;jyhk;. gupNrhjidf;F Kd;dH gpd;tUk; kUe;Jfis ePq;fs; vLf;ff;$lhJ vd mwpTWj;jg;glyhk;.

  • mkpNdh rypfpspf; mrpl; (PAS)
  • ngdprpypd; - Penicillin
  • MAO ,d;`pgplH]; upNrHgpd;
  • nkNjhfhgNkhy; - Methocarbamol
  • f;NshiggpNul; - Clofibrate
  • m];gpupd; - Aspirin
  • xf;rpnll;uhirfpspd; - Oxytetracycline
  • g;nuhk;];ry;gypd; - Bromsulphalein (BSP)
  • PSP
  • ,kpg;gpuikd; - Imipramine
  • Fthdjpild; mdNyhf;]; - Guanethidine analogs
  • ngdNrhigiubd;; - Phenazopyridine
  • nkgndrpd; - Mephenesin
  • eypbf;rpf; mrpl; - Nalidixic acid
  • FNshGNuhkird; - Chlorpromazine
  • nkjpy;Nlhgh - Methyldopa
  • fpspnrupy;FitaNfhiyl; - Glycerylguaiacolate
  • Guk;rgiyd; - Bromsuphalein (BSP)
  • ry;gh kUe;Jfs; - Sulfa drugs

mwpFwp

,e;j gupNrhjidahdJ ,iug;igg; Gw;WNehapidf; fz;Lgpbg;gjw;F kpfTk; gad;kpf;fjhFk;. Fly; my;yJ rpWFlypy; Nkhrkhd Flw;Gz;zpw;fhd fhuzj;jpid jPHkhdpf;f ,J cjTfpd;wJ. NkYk; ,uj;j Nrhifapidf; fz;lwptjw;Fk; ,J cjTfpd;wJ.

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j msT” vijr;Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

  • Fiwthd Fly; mkpyk; - Low stomach acid
  • ,uj;j Nrhif - Pernicious anemia
  • Flw;Gw;WNeha; - Stomach cancer
  • 1000pg/m1 ,w;F Nkw;gbd; njhypq;fH vyprd; Fiwghl;bid fz;lwptJ cWjpg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

czT cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; tpUk;gj;jf;fJ. khjpupapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;dH 12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cztUe;jhjpUj;jy;. ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. gupNrhjidf;F 24 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F Kd;dH kJghdk; mUe;j Ntz;lhk;.

mwpFwp

FUjp cupa Kiwapy; ciwfpd;wjh vd;gijj; jPHkhdpj;jy;. gpwg;gpy; ,Ue;J tUfpd;w kw;Wk; ngw;Wf;nfhz;l FUjpr; rpWjl;Lf; FUjpg;ngUf;Ff; FiwghLfisf; fz;lwpa cjTfpd;wJ.

“jho;thdJ” my;yJ “FiwthdJ” vd;gJ gpd;tUtdtw;wpidr; Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;

  • mupjhd> guk;giu uPjpahd FUjpg; ngUf;F Neha; - Bernard-soulier syndrome
  • mupjhd> kugZ uPjpahd FUjpr; rpWjl;L Neha; - Glanzmann' s thrombasthenia
  • FUjpapy; nrq;FUjpaZf;fspd; mrhjhud nrwptjpfupg;G - Polycythemia
  • FUjpr; rpWjl;Lf; FWkzpfs; ghjpf;fg;gLk; mupjhd Neha; - Storage - pool disease
  • ePbj;j my;yJ mjPj FUjpg; ngUf;fpid Vw;gLj;Jk; Neha; - Von-will-brand’s disease

khjpup

Nrhbak; irl;Nul; FUjp kw;Wk; EDTA Sodium Citrate blood & EDTA blood

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

gpd;tUk; kUe;Jfisg; gupNrhjidf;F 10 ehl;fSf;F Kd;dH jtpHf;fTk;.

  • m];gpupd; kw;Wk; m];gpupd; Nru;f;iffshd Fnshgpl;Nuh[y;
  • ];bnuhapl; my;yhj kw;Wk; mol;rp kUe;Jfs; NfhHl;bf];Nlhiu];
  • ilf;Nshgpbd; fhHypf; nrwpTfs; (Ticlopidin Garlic Concentrates) ngdprpypd; nrgNyhgupd; Nghd;w Ez;ZapHf; nfhy;yp kUe;Jfs;

8-10 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F czT cz;zhjpUj;jy;. khjpupapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;dH 12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cztUe;jhjpUj;jy;. ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

mwpFwp

Kd; fgr;Rug;gpr; nraw;ghL. ,e;jg; gupNrhjidahdJ cly; KidtPf;fk; / NgUUtj;jpidf; (Gigantism) fz;lwptjw;Fk; rpfpr;irapd; tpidj;jpwid kjpg;gpLtjw;Fk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. rpwpa Njhw;wj;jpid cila rpWtHfspy; tsHr;rpf;Fupa N`hHNkhd; Fiwghl;bidf; fz;Lgpbf;f ,J gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. NkYk; Fs;skhFjy; Fiwghl;bidf; fz;lwptij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; re;Njfj;Jf;Fupa fgr;Rug;gpf; fl;bapidf; fz;Lgpbg;gjw;Fk; cjTfpd;wJ.

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j msT” vijr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

  • fgr;Rug;gp my;yJ %isapd; mbg;gFjpf; fl;b> Fs;skhFjy; kw;Wk; rpWtHfspy; NgUUtk; kw;Wk; tsHe;Njhupy; cly;Kid tPf;fk;.

“jho;thdJ” my;yJ “FiwthdJ” vd;gJ gpd;tUtdtw;wpidr; Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;.

  • fgr;Rug;gpf;fhd rhjhuz FUjp tpepNahfj;jpy; ,og;G
  • NtW ,lj;jpy; guTk; Gw;WNeha; - Metastatic cancer
  • fl;bfs; - Tumors
  • Fs;skhFjy; - Dwarfism

khjpup

njspthd ciwe;j FUjp

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cz;zhjpUj;jYk; FUjp Nrfupg;gpw;F 30 epkplq;fSf;F Kd;dH Xa;Tk;. khjpupapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;dH ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

mwpFwp

,e;jg; gupNrhjidahdJ fl;lnfhyikidr; Ruf;fpd;w gpNahFNuhNkirl;Nlhkh kw;Wk; Gw;wy;yhj euk;G Kbr;Rf;fl;b Mfpait cs;sdth vd;gijg; guprPypg;gjw;fhdjhFk;.

khjpup

24 kzpj;jpahy rpWePH Nrfupg;G

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

Nehahspfs; gpd;tUtdtw;wpidg; gupNrhjidf;Ff; Fiwe;jJ 72 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F Kd;dH fl;lhak; jtpHf;fNtz;Lk;. my;ghnkijy;Nlhgh (alpha-methyldopa)> g];gpNuhd; (buspirone)> Nfhbd; (codeine)> INrhGNuhnluNdhy; nklnghiyl; (isoproterenol metabolite)> nkd;lyikd; (mandelamine)> vy; Nlhgh (L dopa)> gurpl;lNkhy; (paracetamol)> nkNlFNshgpuikl; (metoclopramide)> kpsF> kJghdk;> NjePH/Nfhg;gp Gifapiy kw;Wk; fLikahd clw;gapw;rp.

.

mwpFwp

ePupoptpidf; fz;lwpjy;

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j msT” vijr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ

  • ,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l re;jHg;gq;fspy; 110mg/100ml kl;lq;fs; fhzg;gbd; mJ ePupopthFk;.

“jho;thdJ” my;yJ “FiwthdJ” vd;gJ gpd;tUtdtw;wpidr; Rl;bf;fhl;lyhk;

  • mjpfsT ,d;Rypd;
  • fizaf; fyq;fspy; fl;b
  • kpiff; Nflar; Rug;G
  • mz;zPufg; gw;whf;Fiw
  • kpiff; fgr;Rug;G - Hypopituitarism
  • mfj;JwpQ;rhikf; FiwghL
  • <uy; tpahjp

khjpup

Nrhbak; F kw;Wk; nghw;whrpak; xf;]iyl; 1:3 vDk; tpfpjhrhuk;

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

XH ,uT KOtJk; tsHe;NjhH 9-12 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; cz;zhjpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

rpWtHfs; 6 tajpw;F Fiwe;NjhH ghY}l;lg;gLtjw;F Kd;dUk; 6 tajpw;F Nkw;gl;NlhH cztUe;j Kd;dUk;.

ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F 12-14 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. gupNrhjidf;F Kd;du; fLikahd clw;gapw;rpapidj; jtpu;f;fTk;.

  • rfy nghUj;jkhd juTfSk; nfhs;;fydpd; rupahd gl;baYld; Ntz;LNfhs; gbtj;jpy; toq;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
  • Ez;ZapHf; nfhy;ypapidf; nfhz;L rpfpr;irapid Muk;gpg;gjw;F Kd;dH rfy khjpupfSk; njhw;WePf;fg;gl;l nfhs;fydpDs; Nrfupf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
  • cly; ghaq;fspd; khjpupfSs; cs;slq;Fgit: FUjp> %is kw;Wk; Ks;se;jz;bYs;s epwkw;w ghak; (CSF)> EiuaPuy; ghak; kw;Wk; tapw;W cs;siwg; ghak;.
  • kpfTk; ,Wf;fkhd Neha;j;njhw;ww;w epiyikapy; %l;L ePHkk; Nrfupf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. FUjpapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;dH toq;fg;gl;l mwpTWj;jy;fisg; gpd;gw;w Ntz;Lk;.
  • rPo;; Nrfupf;fg;gLifapy; mJ fhaj;jpd; Nkw;gug;gpidj; njhw;WePf;fg;gl;l nriydpdhy; Jg;guthf;fpa gpd;dH fhaj;jpd; Moj;jpy; ,Ue;J my;yJ rPo;f;fl;bapd; RtupypUe;J vLf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
  • ,Ukpa rspapidr; Nrfupf;ifapy; mjpfhiyapy; Nrfupf;fg;gLk; khjpup rpwe;jjhFk;.
  • rpWePuhdJ J}a;ikahd eLg;gha;r;ry; (KjypYk; filrpapYk; tUk; rpWePuy;yhj) khjpupapidf; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJld; Nehahspf;F cupa mwpTWj;jy;fs; toq;fg;gly;Ntz;Lk;. Foe;ijfspd; rpWePuf khjpupapidr; Nrfupj;jy; - rtHf;fhuk; kw;Wk; ePH nfhz;L rpWePHf;Foha; kw;Wk; Rug;gplq;fisj; Jg;guT nra;J> mjidj; njhw;WePf;fpa gQ;rpdhy; Jilj;J> njhw;WePf;fg;gl;l rpWePH Nrfupg;Gg; igapDs; rpWePupidr; Nrfupf;fNtz;Lk;.
  • rspg;ghfKk; ,uj;jKk; Njha;e;j kyj;jpd; gFjp Nrfupf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
  • cl;nghjpe;j tbFohapidf; (catheter) nfhz;Ls;s NehahspfsplkpUe;J rpWePH Nrfupf;ifapy; Mrpup itj;jparhiy Ma;T$lj;jpd; mwpTWj;jy;fisg; ngwTk;.

rfy khjpupfSk; jhkjkpd;wp Ma;T$lj;jpw;F vLj;Jr; nry;yg;gly;Ntz;Lk;. Vnddpy;> ePz;lfhyj;jpw;F itj;jpUf;fg;gLk; khjpupfs; njhw;wpid mwptjw;fhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; Ez;ZapH tsHg;Gg; gupNrhjid (culture test) KbTfspy; Jy;ypakhd ngWNgWfisj; juhJ.

mwpFwp

vOkhwhf vLf;fg;gl;l my;yJ czT cz;zhky; ,Ue;J vLf;fg;gl;l Cd;kePu; (plasma) FSNfh]; nrwptpd; KbTfs; Nehapidf; fz;lwptjw;F G+uzkw;wjhf ,Uf;ifapy; ePupopT Nehapidf; fz;lwptjw;F OGTT gupNrhjid Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ. mjpcaH mghaNeHtpidf; nfhz;l ngz;fs; FOf;fspy; fHg;gfhy ePupoptpidf; fz;lwptjw;Fk; ,e;jg; gupNrhjid fHg;gj;jpd;NghJ Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ.

“caH” my;yJ “mjpfupj;j msT” vijr;Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

  • tsu;r;rp N`hu;Nkhdpd; mjPj Rug;gpdhy; if> fhy;> Kfk; Mfpatw;wpd; mrhjhud tsu;r;rp - Acromegaly
  • jPtpu kd mOj;jk; (kdmjpHr;rptL> khuilg;G kw;Wk; ghuprthjk; Nghd;wtw;Wf;fhd gjpw;nraw;ghL)
  • ePz;lfhy rpWePufr; nraypog;G
  • frpd;q;; neha; - Cushing syndrome
  • mjPj czT cl;nfhs;sy;
  • kpiff; Nflar; Rug;G - Hyperthyroidism
  • fizag; Gw;WNeha;
  • fida mow;rp

khjpup

  • Nrhbak; F kw;Wk; nghw;whrpak; xf;]Nyl; 1:3 tpfpjhrhuk;
  • rpWePH khjpupfs;

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

OGTT

  • %d;W ehl;fs; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;glhj Gujk; nrwpe;j czT kw;Wk; nraw;ghL
  • gupNrhjid ehspd;NghJ kUe;Jfis cl;nfhs;sf;$lhJ.
  • gupNrhjidf;F 10-12 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F Kd;du; czT cz;zf;$lhJ. ePH jtpHe;j NtW czT my;yJ ghdq;fis gupNrhjidf;F 12-14 kzpj;jpahyq;fSf;F Kd;du; cz;zhkYk; mUe;jhkYk; ,Uj;jNy cz;zhky; ,Uj;jy; vd tiuaiw nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.
  • KjyhtJ FUjp khjpup vLf;fg;gl;lJk; Nehahspf;F 75 fpuhk; my;yJ 100 fpuhk; FSNfhR toq;fg;gLfpd;wJ (itj;jpaupd; fl;lisg;gb) (FSNfhR 200 kpy;yp yPl;lH ePupy; fiuf;fg;gLfpd;wJ)
  • FSNfh]; toq;fg;gl;L 30 epkplq;fspd; gpd;dH ,uz;lhtJ FUjp khjpup vLf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
  • gpd;tUkhW khjpupfis vLf;fTk:; xU kzpj;jpahyk;> kw;Wk; 2 kzpj;jpahyk;
  • xt;nthU FUjp khjpupapidAk; vLf;Fk;NghJ rpWePuf khjpupfisAk; vLf;fTk;.
  • gupNrhjid KbAk;tiuapy; Nehahsp itj;jparhiyapy; fhj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

mwpFwp

ntspg;gilahd rpWePHg;Gujk; cUthFtjw;F Kd;dH rpWePuf Neha; Muk;gj;jpNy Vw;gLtjw;Fupa tha;g;gpid kjpg;gpLtjw;F ,e;jg; gupNrhjid ePupopT Nehahspfs; kj;jpapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ.

khjpup

fhiyg;nghOjpy; ,uz;lhtJ Kiw fopf;Fk; rpWePufj;jpidr; Nrfupj;jy;

Nehahspapidj; jahHgLj;Jjy;

khjpupapidr; Nrfupg;gjw;F Kd;du; Nehahsp Xa;ntLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

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